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Foundations of Law

For students enrolled in Foundations of Australian Law LAW101

Australian Guide to Legal Citation

It is crucial for legal writing that a recognised citation style is used consistently for all bibliographic material (articles, cases, statutes etc). At USC  all law students are required to use the The Australian Guide to Legal Citation 3rd edition (AGLC3) published by Melbourne University.

  • A printed copy of AGLC4  is available in the Library at KU48.A87 2018.
  • An online copy of AGLC4 (337 pages in PDF) is available freely from the Melbourne University's web site.
  • Certain errors have been identified in the AGLC4 .  Please note the Erratum as at February 2019.

AGLC and Endnote: AGLC is not compatible with Endnote. However, AGLC can be used with Endnote. The University of Queensland have created two output styles (one for footnotes only, and one for footnotes plus bibliography) which may be downloaded from their website.

If you wish to download and use these styles, it is essential that you read the Quick Guide: Using EndNote X9 with AGLC4, which contains further information on using these styles effectively with EndNote.

Primary Sources - Citation Examples

Primary Sources-Cases 

Reported Judgments

Cite from authorised law reports if available (CLR, FCR, VR, etc)

Law reports with sequential volume numbering - use round brackets for the year Party names (Year) Volume number Law Report Abbreviation First page, Cited page and/or [paragraph number]

Example: New South Wales v Lepore (2003) 212 CLR 511

Law reports with sequence organised by year rather than volume - use square brackets for the year Party names [Year] Volume number if applicable Law report abbreviation First page, Cited page and/or [paragraph number]

Example: Victorian Lawyers RPA Ltd v X [2001] 3 VR 601

Unreported Judgments

Use Medium Neutral Citation if available Party names [Year of decision] Court abbreviation Sequential judgment number (Full date)

Example: R v Whyte [2004] VSCA 5 (12 April 2004)

Primary Sources-Statutes

Acts

Short title Year (Jurisdiction) Pinpoint reference

Example: Legal Practices Act 1996 (Vic) s 37

Bills

Short title Year (Jurisdiction)

Example: Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (Cth)

Primary Sources-Treaties

Treaties

Treaty title, Parties names, Date Opened for Signature or Signed, Treaty Series, Date of Entry into Force

Example: Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America [ANZUS], opened for signature 1 September 1951, [1952] ATS 2 (entered into force 29 April 1952)

Referencing and Research Sources

The library also holds some other legal referencing and research guides:

Try the Academic Referencing Tool

The Academic Referencing Tool (ART), available on the La Trobe University Library's website, provides detailed examples for a number of referencing styles including AGLC4 (Law). 

Citation examples

Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC4)

Quick examples (see below for more detail) (Macquarie Uni)

Book
Margaret Kerr, Legal research: step by step (E. Montgomery Publications, 1998).
Encyclopedia Online
Lawbook, The Laws of Australia, (at 18 November 2000) 15 Equity, '15.2 Fiduciaries' [37].
Journal Article
Alison Dodd, 'Sustainability on my mind' (2009) 83(9)
Law Institute Journal 72.
Newspaper
Wesley Aird, 'Rudd's closing the gap mission
can only get harder from here', The Australian
(Sydney), 13 Feburary 2010, 14.
Internet
World Health Organization, A Guide to Establishing Event-based Surveillance (2008) <http://www.wpro.who.int/internet/
resources/ashx/CSR/Publications/eventbasedsurv.pdf>.
Cases
(by volume)
(by year)
Mabo v Queensland (1986) 60 ALJR 255.
Bakker v Stewart [1980] VR 17, 22.
Legislation
Higher Education Support Act 2003 (Cth).

Secondary sources - Citation examples

Secondary sources-Books

Author, Title (Publisher, Edition, Year of publication), Page, paragraph or chapter reference.

Author names in Footnote: first name, last name   

Author names in Bibliography: last name, first name

Authored book

Example:
Chisolm, Richard and Nettheim, Garth, Understanding Law: An Introduction to Australia's Legal System (LexisNexis Butterworths, 7th ed, 2007)

Edited book

Example:
Kinley, David (ed), Human Rights in Australian Law: Principles, Practice and Potential (Federation Press, 1998)

Chapter in an edited book

Example:
Morgan, F, 'The Extent and Location of Crime', in Goldsmith, Andrew, Israel, Mark and Daly, Kathleen (eds), Crime and Justice : an Australian Textbook in Criminology ( Lawbook, 2nd ed, 2003), 11

Secondary source-Journal Article

Author, 'Title' (Year) Volume Journal Title, First page number of the article, Cited page

Journal article with continuous voluming - use round brackets for the year

Example:
Bagaric, Mirko, 'Active and Passive Euthanasia: Is there a Moral Distinction and Should there be a Legal Difference?' (1977) 5    Journal of Law and Medicine 143.

Journal article with no continuous voluming - use square brackets for the year

Example:
Lee, HP, 'The High Court and Implied Fundamental Guarantees' [1993] Public Law 606.

Note - an article should be cited as above regardless of retrieval method (ie. print or electronic) UNLESS the article is ONLY available in electronic form. If paragraph numbers are available, these may be referred to and enclosed in square brackets.

Journal article only available on the internet (no print equivalent)

Example:
Rimmer, Matthew, 'Daubism: Copyright Law and Artistic Works' (2002) 9(4) eLaw Journal : Murdoch University Electronic Journal of    Law [58] <http://www.murdoch.edu.au/elaw/issues/v9n4/rimmer94.html>

Secondary sources-Internet

Author, Title (Full date of last update), Website name <URL>

A Document published on the internet

Example:
Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements, (18 February 2010), Council of Legal Education    <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Secondary source-Other Legal sources

Secondary source-Law Reform Agency report

Name of law reform commission, Title, Report/Discussion Paper No (Year)

Example:
Australian Law Reform Commission, Essentially Yours: the Protection of Human Genetic Information in Australia, Report No 96 (2003).

Secondary source-Legal Encyclopaedia

Publisher, Title of Encyclopaedia, (at Full Date of last update) Title # Name of title, 'Chapter # Name of chapter' [Paragraph #].

Example:
LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia, (at 15 March 2010) 85 Conflict of Laws, 'I General' [85].

Secondary source-Commentary (Loose-leaf service)

Publisher, Title of service, volume #, (at most Recent Service Number), Pinpoint

Example:
Bourke, J P, Bourke's Criminal Law, Victoria, vol 1 (at Service 95) [3.120]

Online service - volume numbers are not applicable.

Example:
Thomson Reuters, Lawyers Practice Manual, Victoria (at March 2010) [1.1.401

Quotations

You must reference your sources whenever you quote or paraphrase.

Quotations are covered in AGLC4 Rule 1.5

Quotation example:

Groves’ analysis of the OG judgment that ‘disclosure of academic misconduct should not be limited to formal disciplinary findings or proceedings.' 1

Paraphrase example:
Groves argues that the decision in the OG case applies to situations beyond university study. 1
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